India and Pakistan have been at loggerheads since the partition of India in 1947 was done by the Britishers. The first war fought between the two countries which were earlier a part of a unified bigger India was fought in the year of 1947 itself. There have been numerous conflicts after that one can go through. Take a look at all of them below.
India Pakistan Wars in chronological order
The War of 1947:
- This war is called the first Kashmir War. It began in October 1947 and the consequence was the accession of Jammu and Kashmir by India. Pakistan was under the fear that Maharaja Hari Singh would accede to India. It was after the partition done by British, that the princely states were given three options
i) Accede to India
ii) Accede to Pakistan
iii) Remain Independent
- Jammu and Kashmir had a majority of Muslim population and a significant number of Hindus as well.
- The tribal Islamic forces met and joined the army of Pakistan and occupied some parts of the princely state. This left Maharaja Hari Singh no choice but to accede to India and receive military aid.
- Whether it was Nehru’s error or not, the issue was taken to the UN Security Council and Resolution 47 was passed on April 22, 1948.The Line of Control was born that day. At 23:59 hours on January 1, 1949, a ceasefire was declared. India had control of 2/3rds of Jammu and Kashmir whereas Pakistan gained Gilgit Balistan and Azad Kashmir.
- India calls it Pakistan Occupied Kashmir
The War of 1965:
- There were reminiscences of the India Pakistan War of 1947 which may have bothered Pakistan to such a level that it tried to infiltrate Kashmir again. The war started after Pakistan’s Operation Gibraltar where the forces from the neighbour tried to get into Indian government ruled areas and precipitate an insurgency.
- India at the very time launched a full scale military response against West Pakistan. The war was fought for 17 days and thousands of people were dead or injured on both sides.
- The war was also a witness to the largest tanks since world war 2.
- Soviet Union and USA had to intervene and a ceasefire was declared. India had an upper hand in this war as Pakistan caused insurgency.
The War of 1971: Bangladesh Liberation War
- Bangladesh was earlier East Pakistan. This crisis precipitated due to the political battle between Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
- A war was declared between East and West Pakistan following this and Bangladesh wanted freedom from Pakistan.
- Operation Searchlight was conducted and following it and the Bangladesh atrocities almost 10 million Bengalis came back to India and settled as refugees.
- India then intervened into the Bangladesh Liberation Movement and Pakistan made the mistake of conducting a pre-emptive strike on India. This was when the war between India and Pakistan began again.
- Indian army captured Pakistan’s territory till about 15000 square kilometres. This land gained in Pakistan Kashmir, Pakistani Punjab and Sindh sectors was gifted back to Pakistan in the Shimla Agreement later.
- After this East Pakistan surrendered and the state of Bangladesh was created.
- More than 90,000 prisoners of war were gained from Pakistan in this war which is the largest since World War 2.
- It was said, “Pakistan lost half its navy, a quarter of its air force and a third of its army”
The War of 1999:
It is most commonly known as the Kargil war.
- The Pakistani troops infiltrated across the Line of Control and occupied Indian territory at Kargil district of Kashmir.
- India not just launched a military response but also went diplomatically after Pakistan.
- It was within two months of infiltration that the ridges occupied by them were taken back by India.
- There was fear of large-scale military escalation which then forced the US to pressurize Pakistan to withdraw.
- Pakistan faced an international isolation pressure which also could be harmful for its already sinking economy.
- Many units of the Northern Light Infantry of Pakistan had also suffered heavy casualties.
- Nawaz Sharif informed later to the International media, that more than 4,000 Pakistani troops were killed in the operation and that Pakistan had lost the conflict.
- This was one of the major defeats for Pakistan.
Later many conflicts have been reported on the border. India has always been following its no attack first policy and only responds to cross border terrorism. Since long there have been many military standoffs like Uri strike by Pakistan and response of surgical strike by India or 2019 India Pakistan standoff when a suicide attack on CRPF of India was done by Pakistan. JeM claimed it, however most of their locations were finished by India. Diplomatic talks and peaceful co-existence is the only solution to this issue.